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Multiple Discrimination in EU Law. Opportunities for legal responses to intersectional gender discrimination?

Komisja Europejska,

Autor/-ka Dagmar Schiek , Susanne Burri
Rodzaj dokumenturaport
Rodzaj danychilościowe i jakościowe
Rodzaj badaniaewaluacyjne

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This executive summary will first outline the background for discussing multiple discrimination in the EU (2). It will briefly explain the notion of multiple discrimination that was used in the questionnaire for the national reports. This will be followed by an overview of the intersectionality debate and its use for legal strategies to further gender equality and to combat gender discrimination. Next, responses to the phenomenon of multiple discrimination against women in EU law will be analysed, starting with ECJ case law from before and after the enactment of Directive 2000/43/EC, and progressing towards analysis of legislation, including planned legislation. Against this background, the contributions of national experts, which form part II of the report, will be evaluated and analysed (3). Finally, recommendations for further research, legislation and policies will be outlined.
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Members of the European Network of Legal Experts in the Field of Gender Equality

Part I: Executive Summary Dagmar Schiek
1. Introduction
2. Background
2.1. The notion of multiple discrimination
2.2. The intersectionality debate and its relevance for (EU) legal discourse
2.3. Reflections of these developments in EU law
a) General problems of EU equality law and multiple discrimination
b) ECJ case law
c) Community legislation, Council and Commission documents
d) Planned legislation
2.4. Preliminary assessment from a gender perspective

3. Main findings of national reports
3.1. Preliminary remarks
3.2. How (if at all) are cases addressed by courts and equality bodies where a woman is discriminated on grounds of her sex or gender and at least one additional ground?
a) Groups of case examples – combinations of gender with other grounds
b) Summary of case examples
c) Cases where multiple discrimination against women was acknowledged
d) Cases where multiple discrimination against women was not acknowledged
e) Conclusion
3.3. Multiple discrimination in national legislation
a) Is the phenomenon mentioned or even defined in national legislation?
b) Is a definition necessary to achieve adequate protection under national law?
3.4. Are there barriers in law that prevent adequate protection against multiple discrimination?
a) Lack of awareness
b) Comparator approach
c) Compartmentalisation
3.5. Practical consequences of acknowledging multiple discrimination (‘added value’)
3.6. On the necessity of Community legislation
a) Community legislation in general
b) On the need of a definition of multiple discrimination in Community law
c) Towards cautious steps in Community legislation

4. Recommendations Bibliography

Part II: Reports from the Experts of the Member States and EEA Countries
AUSTRIA Anna Sporrer
BELGIUM Jean Jacqmain
BULGARIA Genoveva Tisheva
CYPRUS Evangelia Lia Efstratiou-Georgiades
CZECH REPUBLIC Kristina Koldinska
DENMARK Ruth Nielsen
ESTONIA Anneli Albi
FINLAND Kevat Nousiainen
FRANCE Sylvaine Laulom
GERMANY Beate Rudolf
GREECE Sophia Koukoulis-Spiliotopoulos
HUNGARY Csilla Kollonay Lehoczky
ICELAND Herdis Thorgeirsdottir
IRELAND Frances Meenan
ITALY Simonetta Renga
LITHUANIA Tomas Davulis
MALTA Peter G. Xuereb
NETHERLANDS Rikki Holtmaat
NORWAY Helga Aune
POLAND Eleonora Zielińska
PORTUGAL Maria Do Rosario Palma Ramalho
ROMANIA Roxana Tesiu
SLOVAKIA Zuzana Magurova
SLOVENIA Tanja Koderman Sever
SPAIN Berta Valdes
SWEDEN Ann Numhauser-Henning