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Developing Anti-Discrimination Law in Europe

The 28 EU Member States, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared

Komisja Europejska,

Rok2013
Zasięgeuropejski
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Celem tego raportu jest porównanie funkcjonującego prawa antydyskryminacyjnego w 28 krwajach czlonkowskich UE oraz krajach kandydujących, w oparciu o roczne raporty krajowe przygotowywane przez European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-discrimination Field. Po raz drugi w raporcie uwzględnione informacje z krajów EOG, z Islandii, Norwegii i Lichtensteinu, które weszly do Sieci w 2012 r.

SPIS TREŚCI
Preface 
Introduction 

1 Protected grounds of discrimination 
A. Which grounds are covered? 
Table: Protected grounds 
B. Racial or ethnic origin 
C. Religion or belief 
Specific provisions on religion or belief – ethos-based organisations
D Disability 
Specific provisions on disability – the reasonable accommodation duty
Table: Reasonable accommodation 
Specific provisions on disability – health and safety 
E. Sexual orientation 
F. Age 
Specific provisions on age 
G. Assumed and associated discrimination 
H. Multiple discrimination 

2 Definitions and scope 
A. Direct discrimination 
Table: Direct discrimination 
B. Indirect discrimination 
Table: Indirect discrimination 
C. Harassment 
Table: Harassment 
D. Instructions to discriminate 
Table: Instructions to discriminate 
E. Personal scope 
F. Material scope 
Table: Material scope of the Directives 
Employment 
Social protection 
Social advantages 
Education 
Access to and supply of goods and services 
Beyond the Directives 

3 Exceptions to the principle of equal treatment and positive action
A. Genuine and determining occupational requirements 
B. Armed forces and other specific occupations 
C. Nationality 
Table: Nationality 
D. Family benefits 
E. Public security, public order, criminal offences, protection of health, and protection of the rights and freedoms of others
F. Other exceptions 
G. Positive action 
Table: Positive action 

4 Access to justice and effective enforcement 
A. Judicial and administrative procedures 
Legal action in the private sector 
Legal action in the public sector 
Obstacles to effective access to justice 
B. Legal standing and associations 
Entities that may engage in procedures 
Table: Legal standing 
To engage ‘on behalf of’ 
Collective redress 
Legitimate interest 
C. Burden of proof 
D. Victimisation 
Table: Victimisation 
E. Sanctions and remedies 

5 The role of equality bodies compared 
Table: Specialised bodies 

6 Implementation and compliance 
A. Dissemination of information and social and civil dialogue
Dissemination of information and awareness raising
Social and civil dialogue 
B. Ensuring compliance 
Conclusion 
ANNEX 1 Signature/ratification of international conventions
ANNEX 2 Main national specific anti-discrimination legislation
ANNEX 3 National specialised bodies