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MAKING WORK PAY debates from a gender perspective. A comparative review of some recent policy reforms in thirty European countries.



Wydawca Komisja Europejska,
Bruksela, 2006
ISBN92-79-00054-3
Liczba stron170


Przesłanki Płeć

Raport zawiera przegląd ostatnio przeprowadzonych w 25 krajach UE reform na poziomie krajowym oraz debat politycznych w odniesieniu do polityki "opłacalności pracy" z uwzględnieniem perspektywy równościowej. W raporcie zawarte są również informacje z trzech krajów EOG, Islandii, Norwegii i Lichtenstein'u, oraz dwóch krajów kandydujących, Bułgarii i Rumunii.


SPIS TREŚCI
Summary
Résumé
Zusammenfassung
Introduction
Research design
Report structure
1. The national focus of ‘make work pay’ debates in relation to social protection and social inclusion – an evaluation from a gender perspective
1.1. The introduction or reform of tax credits to increase financial work incentives for the low-paid
1.2. General tax reductions for the employed through reform of the personal taxation system
1.3. Reform to unemployment benefit/assistance systems to ‘make work pay’ for the unemployed
Recent comprehensive reforms: the examples of Denmark, Germany, France and the Netherlands
Reforms with a narrower or more incremental focus on the unemployed: the examples of Austria, Portugal and Ireland
Reforms targeting employment (re-)integration of sick and disabled persons: the example of Norway
Reforms and proposals which focus on extending social protection coverage for the unemployed and inactive: the examples of Norway, Italy, Bulgaria, Romania and Lichtenstein
1.4. Other measures to encourage the unemployed to take part-time or low-waged jobs
1.5. ‘Making work pay’ in relation to pension reform and active ageing
1.6. Work-family reconciliation as the main focus on ‘making work pay’
2. The impact of maternity and parental leave on employment (re-)integration
2.1. Maternity and parental leave duration and financial support
Pre-2004 Member States
New Member States
Non-EU neighbouring countries
2.2. Flexibility in parental leave provision
2.3. Fathers’ entitlements
3. The impact of parental leave or extended absence for childcare (‘returners’) on eligibility for active labour market measures, lifelong learning or other training provisions
3.1. Eligibility for active labour market measures
3.2. Eligibility for lifelong learning or other training provisions
4. Childcare services as a social infrastructure for supporting parents’ employment
4.1. Availability
4.2. Costs of services
4.3. Incompatibility between services and working hours
4.4. Quality of care
5. Conclusions
Appendices
Appendix 1. The work programme for the national reports
Appendix Tables
A.1. Detail of the maternity, paternity and parental leave entitlements in the 30 countries
A.2. The impact of maternity/parental leave provisions on re-integration
A.3. Tax credits/cash benefits and the work incentives of ‘second earners’ in couple households with low income and dependent children
References